English is a very creative language which often uses semantic neologisms (a new meaning is given to an already existing word) and/or terminologization (a generic word is transformed into a new term in a special language).
Here are a few well-known examples* of terms that originally described only animals but which have taken on new meanings in the IT world:
In localization it is not always easy to find suitable equivalents for English neologisms. There is no rule, and choices are made on a term by term basis for each target language.
In some cases a calque is used, especially if the original metaphor is transparent (a mouse actually looks like a rodent and most languages opted for a literal translation, e.g. souris in French and Maus in German); sometimes the English terms enters the target language as a loanword (in Italian the device is called mouse); in other cases ad hoc solutions are found based on the most relevant features of the concepts represented by the English neologisms.
Licia Corbolante, Italian terminologist
* Examples from Terminologia etc.; definitions from the Microsoft terminology database. You can search Microsoft terminology in the Microsoft Language Portal.