Note:
Any CU's published later than June 2013 are Post SP2 updates! So SP2 is recommended to have before installing the CU.
See also here for more information:http://blogs.technet.com/b/steve_chen/archive/2013/07/24/3586568.aspx
The  June 2013 CU for SharePoint and Foundation is considered as a "Post-SP2 CU" and is NOT INCLUDED into the SP2!

Technical details about the SharePoint 2010 and Office Server 2010 SP2 releases (KB 2687524)
-> Download for the SP2 changes list

Find more info also here on my other post, the SPS 2010 Build Numbers Cube Sheet


SharePoint Server 2010 / SharePoint Foundation 2010 – July 2014 CU

Starting with the July 2014 CU, the release cycle is now every month rather than the Bi-monthly cycle.

Build:  14.0.7128.5001

(The number sometimes can be slightly different then shown in your central admin page after install, see also here for more!)

  • MSF2010:  KB 2883026 - package for Microsoft SharePoint Foundation 2010
  • SPS2010:  KB 2883005 - The full server package for SharePoint Server 2010 (contains also the MSF2010 fixes)
  • SharePoint Server 2010 with Project Server: n/a for July
  • Office 2010 CU – KB2978161

Important notes about the cumulative update package:

  • Microsoft Office 2010 hotfixes are multilingual. This cumulative update package contains updates for all languages.
  • The cumulative update package includes all the server component packages. Additionally, the cumulative update package updates only those components that are installed on the system.

Office Web Apps:
Office Web Apps SP1 - http://support.microsoft.com/kb/2460073
Office Web Apps SP2 - http://support.microsoft.com/kb/2687470
Office Web Apps Blog:  http://blogs.office.com/b/officewebapps/
Apply software updates to Office Web Apps Server - http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/jj966220

Project Server:  
General Info on Updates for Project Server 2010

Further instructions and information:
After installing the packages, you may be prompted for a reboot of your Server! Please don't forget to run the PSConfig Wizard anyway, even after reboot just to ensure that all updates has been applied completely and successful!
As usual, you can use the command line on each server in Farm: psconfig cmd upgrade inplace b2b -wait


Other related Links:

· SharePoint Server and Foundation 2010 Build numbers and updates since RTM
· Office SharePoint Server 2007 (MOSS) and Windows SharePoint Services 3.0 (WSSv3)
· SharePoint Portal Server 2003 and WSSv2
· All about updating MOSS and Language Packs
· The Mystery Behind SharePoint 2010 Patching by Jie Li
· SharePoint 2010 SP1 and the June Cumulative Update for SharePoint 2010
· Office 2010 SP1 –> 5 Common questions regarding the Service Pack

Related Update and resource Centers:

· Update Center for Microsoft Office, Office Servers, and Related Products
· Updates for SharePoint Server 2010 and SharePoint Foundation 2010
· Updates for SharePoint Server 2007 and Windows SharePoint Services 3.0
· Updates for Project Server 2010
· Updates for Enterprise Search Products
· Office 2010 Service Pack 1 - 5 Common questions regarding the Service Pack
· SharePoint 2010 SP1 and the June Cumulative Update for SharePoint 2010
· SharePoint 2010 Service Pack 2 for SharePoint and Office