With the recent release of SQL 2012 earlier this month, I confirm that Project Server 2010 supports SQL 2012 (as with SharePoint 2010) and hence we have updated our TechNet product documentation last week: Hardware and software requirements (Project Server 2010). (Link updated 1/3/2013)
There are lots of benefits with this latest version of SQL and I highly encourage you to learn about its news features and scenarios.
Your linked documentation goes to the Requirements for Project Server 2013 instead of 2010.
The 2010 documentation still does not mention SQL 2012.
Thanks for your comment and I have updated the link. The 2010 article does however mention SQL 2012 and the need for SP1 on Project Server, so not sure what you think is missing.