You can disable list throttling at the list level in SharePoint 2010. Note that in order to do this, you must have Farm Administrator privileges.

First, this can only be done via PowerShell, SharePoint Manager, or Object Model.

I will be covering the PowerShell method in this post, but here is a screen shot of where you would make the change in SharePoint Manager after navigating to the list.

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Using PowerShell to disable List Throttling

$web = Get-SPWeb http://url/to/web/with/list
$list = $web.Lists[“BIG_LIST_NAME”]
$list.EnableThrottling = $false
 

Warning:  Throttling is enabled for a good reason.  Disabling throttling can cause performance problems.  If you need to disable throttling for a specific list, I recommend moving the site collection containing the list to a dedicated content database.  This way if SQL table locking performance issues would be contained to the sites in that content database.

For more information about the performance indications see the following article from MSDN:

Query Throttling and Indexing
http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ff798465.aspx