In my previous blog post, I discussed checking the MSS to ensure full sized packets are used. Well, whilst you're digging around in the TCP Options of the SYN-SYN/ACK packets, it's worth checking another option SACK or Selective Acknowledgement.
As you most likely know, TCP is a reliable protocol, in that it ensures delivery of all data. It does this by the ACK's indicating it's received up to a certain point in the data stream. This data stream is essentially a sequence of numbers, called….the sequence numbers.
As an example, if we send 1460 bytes and our last sequence number was 40000 then the ack sent back to the machine which sent those 1460 bytes, will be 41460 and so on, as the sequence number is incremented by the byte size received and thus the sender knows the data arrived safely.
However, we generally send a burst of these packets and the receiver acks every other one, what happens if we send 6 packets and packet 3 goes missing en route? Let's call these packets 1,2,3,4,5 & 6. If we receive packets 1,2,4,5,6 without SACK we'd have to drop packets 5 & 6 and ack 2 to indicate to the sender that that's the point we'd got up to until we'd noticed a packet missing. The sender would then have to retransmit packet #3 followed by 4,5 & 6 which obviously isn't efficient as we'd already received them but had to drop them. This also takes time and thus slows data transfer.
With SACK enabled we're able to tell the sender we're missing a packet and also what other packets we've got. So in essence we can say to the sender, "Hey, I've got packets 1-2, and also 4,5 & 6" the sender can therefore retransmit just packet #3 and thus we save having to retransmit 4,5,6 (and any other subsequent packets which arrived before the retransmission of 3 arrived).
Hope that explanation makes sense for the purposes of this, obviously the real implementation is a little more detailed, if you can't sleep then the detailed RFC is here
This greatly increases the efficiency of the TCP protocol and is therefore enabled by default in Windows and most other TCP implementations. However, there can be occasions where devices are disabling this feature so it's always worth a quick check.
As with the Scale Factor, MSS and Scale Factor, this setting is negotiated in the SYN and SYN/ACK packets and can be found in the TCP options area of the packets. If you're using a proxy or NAT device, it's worth tracing on the egress point to ensure the TCP connection outside your environment also has the setting enabled.
Ensure this is enabled on both the Syn & SYN ACK, and you're good to go!