How to Manage Exchange 2010 Message Queues

How to Manage Exchange 2010 Message Queues

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Queues

·         Get-Queue

·         Resume-Queue

·         Retry-Queue

·         Suspend-Queue

Messages

·         Get-Message

·         Remove-Message

·         Resume-Message

·         Suspend-Message

·         Export-Messages

 

GUI is BAD! Cmd line good!

So the First thing we get a SCOM alert mentioning a Queue is over its threshold on ServerX.

1.       In Exchange Shell do Get-Queue –Server <servername> and see what other queues may be affected.

Get-Queue –Server <ServerName>

 

[PS] C:\scripts>get-Queue -Server Lab-E2k10CSHT01

 

Identity                    DeliveryType Status MessageCount NextHopDomain

--------                    ------------ ------ ------------ -------------

LAB-E2k10CSHT01\4          SmtpRelay... Retry  2196         adsite2

LAB-E2k10CSHT01\Submission Undefined    Ready  0            Submission

 

 

2.       Notice the NextHopDomain, this will show the next location the message is to be routed. The adsite2 is for a mailbox in the remote ADSite2. This can be another Queue or a SMTP Domain.

3.       Let’s look at this closer, add an “|FL” to the command and see what information is added. The Key ones are the LastError, Status, LastRetryTime, NextretryTime. The lastError in this example not only gives the SMTP code "421 4.2.1 Unable to connect." But also elaborates to the cause

 

[PS] C:\scripts>get-Queue -Server Lab-E2k10CSHT01 |fl

 

RunspaceId           : 59f16a72-c038-4c79-9c48-d1b14d5411bf

DeliveryType         : SmtpRelayToRemoteAdSite

NextHopDomain        : adsite2

TlsDomain            :

NextHopConnector     : 2c2bba82-cdb3-460a-82b3-6816d7e7fb70

Status               : Retry

MessageCount         : 2196

LastError            : 451 4.4.0 Primary target IP address responded with: "421 4.2.1 Unable to connect." Attempted                       faillover to alternate host, but that did not succeed. Either there are no alternate hosts, or delivery failed to all alternate hosts.

LastRetryTime        : 4/22/2011 8:57:34 AM

NextRetryTime        : 4/22/2011 9:07:34 AM

DeferredMessageCount : 0

QueueIdentity        : LAB-E2k10CSHT01\4

Identity             : LAB-E2k10CSHT01\4

IsValid              : True

 

RunspaceId           : 59f16a72-c038-4c79-9c48-d1b14d5411bf

DeliveryType         : Undefined

NextHopDomain        : Submission

TlsDomain            :

NextHopConnector     : 00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000

Status               : Ready

MessageCount         : 0

LastError            :

LastRetryTime        :

NextRetryTime        :

DeferredMessageCount : 0

QueueIdentity        : LAB-E2k10CSHT01\Submission

Identity             : LAB-E2k10CSHT01\Submission

 

4.       Note: You could alternately use get-Queue –Identity “<Queue>” |fl

 

[PS] C:\scripts>get-Queue -Identity "LAB-E2k10CSHT01\4" |fl

 

 

RunspaceId           : 59f16a72-c038-4c79-9c48-d1b14d5411bf

DeliveryType         : SmtpRelayToRemoteAdSite

NextHopDomain        : adsite2

TlsDomain            :

NextHopConnector     : 2c2bba82-cdb3-460a-82b3-6816d7e7fb70

Status               : Retry

MessageCount         : 2196

LastError            : 451 4.4.0 Primary target IP address responded with: "421 4.2.1 Unable to connect." Attempted failover to alternate host, but that did not succeed. Either there are no alternate hosts, or delivery failed to all alternate hosts.

LastRetryTime        : 4/22/2011 8:57:34 AM

NextRetryTime        : 4/22/2011 9:07:34 AM

DeferredMessageCount : 0

QueueIdentity        : LAB-E2k10CSHT01\4

Identity             : LAB-E2k10CSHT01\4

IsValid              : True

 

5.       Ok, what do I do? Well, that depends on the error. In this case, I just need to start the Hub Transport in my Remote Site. That LastError message is the key to troubleshooting the reason for the Queue backup.

a.       Remote Queues will all be SMTP Based. SMTP based Queues use the SMTP Error Codes. *See the SMTP Troubleshooting See http://support.microsoft.com/kb/256321/

                                                               i.      Note: These will vary in appearance, name and number.

b.      Mailbox or Local Submission queues check Database for Errors/warning

c.       “Submission” will always be AV or an Agent/Rule triggered on Submission Event.

d.      Poison Message Queue – These are messages that have caused the Transport Service to crash.

e.      Shadow Queues will always be that something is preventing the Q-Discard from being received / sent.

f.        Unreachable Queue – anytime there is not a route to the destination. Check Config to these recipients.

6.       Now, here is some helpful “-Filter” to help with looking at Queues. Note Get-Queue only gets the queue on the local server. You will have to use Get-ExchangeServer | Where { $_.ServerRole –like “*transport*”} or Get-ExchangeServer | where {$_.isHubTransportServer -eq $true } or something similar to look at all Server Queues.

a.       To get all the queues with MessageCount Greater Than 100

Get-queue –Filter {MessageCount –gt 200}

b.      To get all the queues with LastError not equal to $Null

Get-Queue –Filter {LastError –ne $Null}

c.       And the list can go on… Common Comparison Operators

Operator

Name

Description

-eq

Equality

Tests whether values are the same. Other languages may use = or == to test for equality.

-ne

Not Equal

Tests for inequality. Other languages may use <> or != to test for inequality.

-gt

Greater Than

Tests whether one value is larger than another. Other languages may use the > character.

-lt

Less Than

Tests whether one value is smaller than another. Other languages may use the < character.

-ge

Greater Than or Equal To

Tests whether a value is larger than or equal to another value. Similar to >= in VBScript and other languages.

-le

Less Than or Equal To

Tests whether a value is smaller than or equal to another value. Similar to <= in VBScript and other languages.

 

7.       Ok, I found the Queue and I want to Export the messages…how? Well, I am glad you asked. Use the Export-message command. Note it is best to Suspend the Queue or Message before exporting.

a.       Now, there are several options.

                                                               i.      Export a Specific Message

Export-Message -Identity LAB-E2k10CSHT01\4 -Path "C:\Tailspintoys\export.eml"

                                                             ii.      Export ALL message from a Specific Queue, this gets a little more involved. Requires a ForEach loop and some logic for the name of the files exported is highlighted.

Get-Message -Queue "LAB-E2k10CSHT01\4" | ForEach-Object

{

$Temp="C:\tailspintoys Export\"+$_.InternetMessageID+".eml";

$Temp=$Temp.Replace("<","_");

$Temp=$Temp.Replace(">","_");

Export-Message $_.Identity | AssembleMessage -Path $Temp

}

                                                            iii.      Export ALL Message from a Server

Get-Message -Server "LAB-E2k10CSHT01" | ForEach-Object

{             

$Temp="C:\tailspintoys Export\"+$_.InternetMessageID+".eml";

$Temp=$Temp.Replace("<","_");

$Temp=$Temp.Replace(">","_");

Export-Message $_.Identity | AssembleMessage -Path $Temp

}

                                                           iv.      Now, you can add filter to the above say you only wanted to get-messages from senders in the Tailspintoys domain. You could add -Filter {FromAddress -like "@Tailspintoys.com"} to the above after Get-Message.

                                                             v.      To Replay these messages on any Exchange 2010 Hub Server, drop into the “Replay” Directory.

8.       Ok, how do I delete them? With and Without an NDR….well the Remove message does both! Only difference in the command –WithNDR $True or $False

a.       Remove-Message -Filter {property -operator "value"} -WithNDR <$true | $false>

Remove-Message -Filter {Subject -eq "Win Big"} -WithNDR $false will Turf the message withOUT NDRs being sent.

Remove-Message -Filter {Subject -eq "Win Big"} -WithNDR $True will Turf the message with an NDR. Since the default is True. You could remove the –WithNDR $True

b.      The –Filter is the same that you used with the Get-Message.

 


 

Appendix I

·          DeliveryType The delivery type for this queue as defined by transport. The delivery type must be one of the following values:

o    DNSConnectorDelivery

o    NonSMTPGatewayDelivery

o    SmartHostConnectorDelivery

o    SmtpRelayWithinAdSitetoEdge

o    MapiDelivery

o    SmtpRelayWithinAdSite

o    SmtpRelaytoRemoteAdSite

o    SmtpRelaytoTiRg

o    Undefined

o    Unreachable

·          Identity The queue identity in the form of Server\destination, where destination is a remote domain, Mailbox server, or persistent queue name.

·          LastError A text string of the last error recorded for a queue.

·          LastRetryTime The time when a connection was last tried for this queue.

·          MessageCount The number of items in the queue.

·          NextHopConnector The GUID of the connector that was used to create the queue.

·          NextHopDomain The next hop domain of the queue, specified as a remote SMTP domain, a server name, the name of an Active Directory site, or a message database (MDB) identifier.

·          NextRetryTime The time when a connection will next be tried for this queue.

·          Status The status of the queue. Queue status options are Active, Ready, Retry, or Suspended.

 

Queue identity formats

Queue identity format

Usage

Server\QueueJetID (Int64)

The complete, unique identity for a delivery queue.

\QueueJetID

The identity of a queue on the local server. The server name is omitted. Therefore, the local server is implied.

Server\*

Any queue on the specified server.

Server\NextHopDomain

A queue on the specified server holding messages for delivery to a specific remote domain.

\NextHopDomain

A queue holding messages destined for a specific domain and located on the local server.

Server\Poison

The poison message queue located on the specified server.

Server\Submission

The queue that contains items waiting to be processed by the categorizer.

Server\Unreachable

The queue that contains items that can't be routed and located on the specified server.

 

Message Filters

The Filter parameter requires an expression that specifies the property value criteria for the messages that you want to remove. The expression includes a property name followed by a comparison operator and value. The following message properties are valid criteria for the Filter parameter:

·         DateReceived The date that the message was received.

·         ExpirationTime The time that a message will expire.

·         FromAddress The SMTP address of the sender of a message. This value is taken from MAIL FROM in the message envelope.

·         Identity An integer that represents a particular message and an optional server and queue identity.

·         InternetMessageId The value of the Message-ID header field. This property is expressed as a GUID followed by the SMTP address of the sending server, as in this example: 67D7543D6103DC4FBEBA6BC7205DACABA61231@exchange.contoso.com.

·         LastError A text string of the last error recorded for a message.

·         MessageSourceName A text string of the name of the component that submitted this message to the queue.

·         Queue The identity of the queue that holds the message. Enter the queue identity in the form of Server\destination, where destination is a remote domain, Mailbox server, or persistent queue name.

·         RetryCount The number of times that delivery of a message to a destination was tried.

·         SCL The spam confidence level (SCL) of the message. Valid SCL entries are integers 0 through 9. An empty SCL property value indicates that the message hasn't been processed by the Content Filter agent.

·         Size The size of a message.

·         SourceIP The IP address of the external server that submitted the message to the Exchange organization.

·         Status The current message status. Message status options are Active, Retry, Suspended, PendingSuspend, and PendingRemove.

·         Subject A text string that represents the e-mail subject. The value is taken from the Subject header field.

You can specify multiple filter criteria by using the and comparison operator. Property values that aren't expressed as a single integer must be enclosed in quotation marks (").


 

Comparison Operators.

TOPIC

    about_Comparison_Operators

 

SHORT DESCRIPTION

    Describes the operators that compare values in Windows PowerShell.

 

LONG DESCRIPTION

    Comparison operators let you specify conditions for comparing values and

    finding values that match specified patterns. To use a comparison operator,

    specify the values that you want to compare together with an operator that

    separates these values.

 

 

    By default, all comparison operators are case-insensitive. To make a

    comparison operator case-sensitive, precede the operator name with a "c".

    For example, the case-sensitive version of "-eq" is "-ceq". To make the

    case-insensitivity explicit, precede the operator with an "i". For example,

    the explicitly case-insensitive version of "-eq" is "ieq".

 

 

    All comparison operators except the containment operators

    (-contains, -notcontains) and type operators (-is, -isnot) return a Boolean

    value when the input to the operator (the value on the left side of the

    operator) is a single value (a scalar). When the input is a collection of

    values, the containment operators and the type operators return any

    matching values. If there are no matches in a collection, these operators

    do not return anything. The containment operators and type operators always

    return a Boolean value.

 

 

    Windows PowerShell supports the following comparison operators.

 

 

    -eq

      Description: Equal to. Includes an identical value.

      Example:

 

 

          C:\PS> "abc", "def" -eq "abc"

          abc

 

 

    -ne

      Description: Not equal to. Includes a different value.

      Example:

 

 

          C:\PS> "abc", "def" -ne "abc"

          def

 

 

    -gt

      Description: Greater-than.

      Example:

 

 

          C:\PS> 8 -gt 6

          True

 

 

 

    -ge

      Description: Greater-than or equal to.

      Example:

 

 

          C:\PS> 8 -ge 8

          True        

 

 

    -lt

      Description: Less-than.

      Example:

 

 

          C:\PS> 8 -lt 6

          False

 

 

    -le

      Description: Less-than or equal to.

      Example:

 

 

          C:\PS> 6 -le 8

          True

 

 

    -like

      Description: Match using the wildcard character (*).

      Example:

 

 

          C:\PS> "Windows PowerShell" -like "*shell"

          True

 

 

    -notlike

      Description: Does not match using the wildcard character (*).

      Example:

 

 

          C:\PS> "Windows PowerShell" -notlike "*shell"

          False

              

 

    -match

      Description: Matches a string using regular expressions.

                   When the input is scalar, it populates the

                   $Matches automatic variable.

      Example:

 

                                     

          C:\PS> "Sunday" -match "sun"

          True

 

          C:\PS> $matches

          Name Value

          ---- -----

          0    sun

 

 

    -notmatch

      Description: Does not match a string. Uses regular expressions.

                   When the input is scalar, it populates the $Matches

                   automatic variable.

      Example:

 

 

          C:\PS> "Sunday" -notmatch "sun"

          False

 

          C:\PS> $matches

          Name Value

          ---- -----

          0    sun

 

 

    -contains

      Description: Containment operator. Tells whether a single test value appears

      in a set of reference values. Returns TRUE only when the test value exactly

      matches at least one of the reference values. Contains uses reference equality

      and returns a Boolean value.

 

      Syntax:

          <Reference-values> -contains <Test-value>

 

     

      Examples:

 

          C:\PS> "abc", "def" -contains "def"

          True

 

          C:\PS> "Windows", "PowerShell" -contains "Shell"

          False  #Not an exact match

 

 

          # Does the list of computers in $domainServers

          # include $thisComputer?

          # -------------------------------------------

          C:\PS> $domainServers -contains $thisComputer

          True

 

 

      

 

    -notcontains

      Description: Containment operator. Tells whether a single (scalar) test

      value appears in a set of reference values. Returns TRUE when the test

      value is not an exact match for any of the reference values. Always

      returns a Boolean value.

 

      Syntax:

          <Reference-values> -notcontains <Test-value>

 

      Examples:

 

          C:\PS> "Windows", "PowerShell" -notcontains "Shell"

          True  #Not an exact match

 

 

          # Get cmdlet parameters, but exclude common parameters

          function get-parms ($cmdlet)

          {

              $common = "Verbose", "Debug", "WarningAction", "WarningVariable", `

                        "ErrorAction", "ErrorVariable", "OutVariable", "OutBuffer"

   

              $allparms = (get-command $cmdlet).parametersets | foreach {$_.parameters} | `

                          foreach {$_.name} | sort-object | get-unique

   

              $allparms | where {$common -notcontains $_ }

          }

 

 

          # Find unapproved verbs in the functions in my module

          # -------------------------------------------

          C:\PS> $approvedVerbs = get-verb | foreach {$_.verb}

          C:\PS> $myVerbs = get-command -module MyModule | foreach {$_.verb}

 

          C:\PS> $myVerbs | where {$approvedVerbs -notcontains $_}     

          ForEach

          Sort

          Tee

          Where

 

    

 

    -replace

      Description: Replace operator. Changes the specified elements of a value.

      Example:

 

 

          C:\PS> "Get-Process" -replace "Get", "Stop"

          Stop-Process

 

          # Change all .GIF file name extension to .JPG

          C:\PS> dir *.gif | foreach {$_ -replace ".gif", ".jpg"}

              

 

  Equality Operators

      The equality operators (-eq, -ne) return a value of TRUE or the matches

      when one or more of the input values is identical to the specified

      pattern. The entire pattern must match an entire value.

 

 

      The following examples show the effect of the equal to operator:

 

 

          C:PS> 1,2,3 -eq 2

          2

 

          C:PS> "PowerShell" -eq "Shell"

          False

 

          C:PS> "Windows", "PowerShell" -eq "Shell"

          C:PS>

 

          C:\PS> "abc", "def", "123" -eq "def"

          def

 

 

  Containment Operators

      The containment operators (-contains and -notcontains) are similar to the

      equality operators. However, the containment operators always return a

      Boolean value, even when the input is a collection.

 

 

      Also, unlike the equality operators, the containment operators return a

      value as soon as they detect the first match. The equality operators

      evaluate all input and then return all the matches in the collection.

      The following examples show the effect of the -contains operator:

 

 

          C:PS> 1,2,3 -contains 2

          True

 

          C:PS> "PowerShell" -contains "Shell"

          False

 

          C:PS> "Windows", "PowerShell" -contains "Shell"

          False

 

          C:\PS> "abc", "def", "123" -contains "def"

          True

 

          C:\PS> "true", "blue", "six" -contains "true"

          True

 

 

      The following example shows how the containment operators differ from the

      equal to operator. The containment operators return a value of TRUE on the

      first match.

 

 

          C:\PS> 1,2,3,4,5,4,3,2,1 -eq 2

          2

          2

 

          C:\PS> 1,2,3,4,5,4,3,2,1 -contains 2

          True

 

     

      In a very large collection, the -contains operator returns results

      quicker than the equal to operator.

 

 

  Match Operators

      The match operators (-match and -notmatch) find elements that match or

      do not match a specified pattern using regular expressions.

 

      The syntax is:

 

          <string[]> -match <regular-expression>

          <string[]> -notmatch <regular-expression>

 

 

      The following examples show some uses of the -match operator:

 

 

          C:\PS> "Windows", "PowerShell" -match ".shell"

          PowerShell

 

          C:\PS> (get-command get-member -syntax) -match "-view"

          True

 

          C:\PS> (get-command get-member -syntax) -notmatch "-path"

          True

 

          C:\PS> (get-content servers.txt) -match "^Server\d\d"

          Server01

          Server02

 

        

      The match operators search only in strings. They cannot search in arrays

      of integers or other objects.

 

      The -match and -notmatch operators populate the $Matches automatic

      variable when the input (the left-side argument) to the operator

      is a single scalar object. When the input is scalar, the -match and

      -notmatch operators return a Boolean value and set the value of the

      $Matches automatic variable to the matched components of the argument.

 

      If the input is a collection, the -match and -notmatch operators return

      the matching members of that collection, but the operator does not

      populate the $Matches variable.

 

      For example, the following command submits a collection of strings to

      the -match operator. The -match operator returns the items in the collection

      that match. It does not populate the $Matches automatic variable.

 

          C:\PS> "Sunday", "Monday", "Tuesday" -match "sun"

          Sunday

 

          C:\PS> $matches

          C:\PS>

 

 

      In contrast, the following command submits a single string to the

      -match operator. The -match operator returns a Boolean value and

      populates the $Matches automatic variable.

 

          C:\PS> "Sunday" -match "sun"

          True

 

          C:\PS> $matches

 

          Name                           Value

          ----                           -----

          0                              Sun

 

 

      The -notmatch operator populates the $Matches automatic variable when

      the input is scalar and the result is False, that it, when it detects

      a match.

 

 

          C:\PS> "Sunday" -notmatch "rain"

          True

 

          C:\PS> $matches

          C:\PS>

         

          C:\PS> "Sunday" -notmatch "day"

          False

 

          C:\PS> $matches

          C:\PS>

 

          Name                           Value

          ----                           -----

          0                              day

 

       

  Replace Operator

      The -replace operator replaces all or part of a value with the specified

      value using regular expressions. You can use the -replace operator for

      many administrative tasks, such as renaming files. For example, the

      following command changes the file name extensions of all .gif files

      to .jpg:

 

 

          Get-ChildItem | Rename-Item -NewName { $_ -replace '.gif$','.jpg$' }

 

 

      The syntax of the -replace operator is as follows, where the <original>

      placeholder represents the characters to be replaced, and the

      <substitute> placeholder represents the characters that will replace

      them:

 

 

          <input> <operator> <original>, <substitute>

 

 

      By default, the -replace operator is case-insensitive. To make it case

      sensitive, use -creplace. To make it explicitly case-insensitive, use

      -ireplace. Consider the following examples:

 

 

          C:\PS> "book" -replace "B", "C"

          Cook

          C:\PS> "book" -ireplace "B", "C"

          Cook

          C:\PS> "book" -creplace "B", "C"

          book

 

 

  Bitwise Operators

      Windows PowerShell supports the standard bitwise operators, including

      bitwise-AND (-bAnd), the inclusive and exclusive bitwise-OR operators

      (-bOr and -bXor), and bitwise-NOT (-bNot). Beginning in Windows

      PowerShell 2.0, all bitwise operators work with 64-bit integers.

 

 

      Windows PowerShell supports the following bitwise operators.

 

 

      Operator  Description               Example 

      --------  ----------------------    -------------------

      -bAnd     Bitwise AND               C:\PS> 10 -band 3

                                          2

 

      -bOr      Bitwise OR (inclusive)    C:\PS> 10 -bor 3

                                          11   

 

      -bXor     Bitwise OR (exclusive)    C:\PS> 10 -bxor 3

                                          9

 

      -bNot     Bitwise NOT               C:\PS> -bNot 10

                                          -11

 

   

 

      Bitwise operators act on the binary format of a value. For example, the

      bit structure for the number 10 is 00001010 (based on 1 byte), and the

      bit structure for the number 3 is 00000011. When you use a bitwise

      operator to compare 10 to 3, the individual bits in each byte are

      compared.

 

 

      In a bitwise AND operation, the resulting bit is set to 1 only when both

      input bits are 1.

 

 

          1010      (10)

          0011      ( 3)

          --------------  bAND

          0010      ( 2)

 

 

      In a bitwise OR (inclusive) operation, the resulting bit is set to 1

      when either or both input bits are 1. The resulting bit is set to 0 only

      when both input bits are set to 0.

 

 

          1010      (10)

          0011      ( 3)

          --------------  bOR (inclusive)

          1011      (11)

 

 

      In a bitwise OR (exclusive) operation, the resulting bit is set to 1 only

      when one input bit is 1.

 

 

          1010      (10)

          0011      ( 3)

          --------------  bXOR (exclusive)

          1001      ( 9)

 

 

      The bitwise NOT operator is a unary operator that produces the binary

      complement of the value. A bit of 1 is set to 0 and a bit of 0 is set

      to 1.

 

      For example, the binary complement of 0 is -1, the maximum unsigned

      integer (0xffffffff), and the binary complement of -1 is 0.

 

 

          C:\PS> -bNOT 10

          -11

 

 

          0000 0000 0000 1010  (10)

          ------------------------- bNOT

          1111 1111 1111 0101  (-11, xfffffff5)

 

Comments
  • Hi

    I have a serious situation on my hands. I made a local move request of 500 mailboxes from one DB to another. all of a sudden all those user mailboxes are not receiving emails because they get stuck in the "unreachable domain" queue. ive restarted services, restarted the exchange servers and still no luck. im really lost and don't know what to do anymore.

    pleae help

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