Copied from http://blogs.technet.com/b/storageserver/archive/2010/11/16/windows-storage-server-2008-r2-references.aspx

Windows Storage Server 2008 R2
Microsoft.com:  http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserver2008/en/us/wss08.aspx
TechNet Overview: http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/gg232660(WS.10).aspx
Getting Started Guide: http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/gg214166(WS.10).aspx
Known Issues List: http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/gg214171(WS.10).aspx
OEM Deployment Guide: Download the guide here.
OEM Partners: http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserver2008/en/us/wss08/partners.aspx

Find out more about Specialized Server Solutions and how to become an OEM Partner.

Downloads:
MSDN and TechNet Download: http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/subscriptions/downloads/default.aspx?pv=18:370
Embedded OEM Trial Software:  The Embedded Server Evaluation Website now has the Windows Storage Server evaluation package available for IHVs, OEMs, ISVs, consultants and VARs to evaluate and test the product. The download is available after a quick registration page.

Windows Server 2008 R2
New Technology: http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserver2008/en/us/whats-new.aspx
New in Windows File Services: http://www.microsoft.com/storage

Storage Technology Facts
Default cluster size for NTFS, FAT, and exFAT (256 TB NTFS limit) - http://support.microsoft.com/kb/140365
Large Logical Unit Support and Windows Server 2003 SP1 (GPT): http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/device/storage/LUN_SP1.mspx and http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/device/storage/GPT_FAQ.mspx
How NTFS works (256 TB limit) : http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc781134.aspx
Reviewing Storage Limits: http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc773268.aspx
Microsoft Storage: Fact and Fiction - http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserversystem/storage/getstorfacts.mspx
How to calculate the LUN limit per HBA - http://blogs.technet.com/b/filecab/archive/2008/10/20/storage-tip-how-to-calculate-windows-server-2008-lun-limit-per-hba.aspx
How dynamic disks and volumes work - http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc758035.aspx
How basic disks and volumes work - http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc739412.aspx

Windows Storage Server Whitepapers
Windows Server 2008 R2 Whitepapers
Improve your understanding and get more in-depth information about Windows Server 2008 R2 in these whitepapers: http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserver2008/en/us/white-papers.aspx

Performance Tuning Guidelines
This guide describes important tuning parameters and settings that you can adjust to improve the performance and energy efficiency of the Windows Server 2008 R2 operating system. This guide describes each setting and its potential effect to help you make an informed decision about its relevance to your system, workload, and performance goals.  http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/system/sysperf/Perf_tun_srv-R2.mspx

NFS Account Mapping Whitepaper
This paper covers Network File System (NFS) account mapping and the deployment in Windows Server 2008 R2. NFS is a network file sharing protocol that allows remote access to files over a network. NFS implementations include an NFS server component, which enables the sharing of files for use by other networked computers, and an NFS client component, which enables computers to access files shared by NFS servers. The Services for NFS role service in Windows Server provides the ability to function as an NFS server. Windows and UNIX operating systems use different account and security systems. Windows operating systems represent users and groups with a unique security identifier (SID), while UNIX operating systems represent users with user identifiers (UIDs) and group identifiers (GIDs). Account mapping is the process of correlating the UNIX UIDs and GIDs to corresponding Windows user and group SIDs.
http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/en/details.aspx?FamilyID=5f4c294c-8692-4235-8236-8ea809ae71f7

Operational TCO Comparison:
Windows Server 2008 File Services vs. Dedicated Storage System Vendors  (Done by the Edison Group)
http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserversystem/solutions/specializedservers/product_guide/product_guide/content/03.wp.print.htm

Other Windows Storage Server Blog Entries

  1. MSDN release information
  2. iSCSI PowerShell cmdlets
  3. How to create differencing VHDs for iSCSI boot using WMI.