The Storage Team Blog about file services and storage features in Windows Server, Windows XP, Windows Vista and Windows 7.
The Content Classifier in the File Classification Infrastructure extracts text from files using the IFilter mechanism that enables the Search Indexer. Here is a list of file types that have a corresponding IFilter installed on a Windows Server 2008 R2 install without any other software installed on it:
Additionally, the a few Microsoft IFilters that can easily be added without extra cost
Other free and commercial IFilters also exist. You can start at http://ifilter.org/ to find more IFilters.
However, just because an IFilter exists, does not mean it will extract data from files. Some of these will not retrieve text to be scanned by the content classifier. For a complete list of file types that the default IFilters can extract text from and what data is extracted from each, you can look at the official list of included Filters at http://www.live.com/docs/toolbarts.aspx?t=MSNTbar_CONC_SearchableFileTypes.htm
If you would like to figure out which IFilters are installed on one of your servers, you can use the FiltReg (http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms692537(VS.85).aspx) tool.
The official IFilter blog has a lot more information as well as more links to IFilters to extend the reach of the Content Classifier (and the Search Indexer) into more file types.
Update: Formating issues with table
Update 2: Added entry for Office 2010 filter pack
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