Dougga here. Not a password policy blog post, I am finally off of that issue. But I couldn’t help myself and included something about passwords in this post <grin>.

Users and Computers have and attribute called UserAccountControl that dictates some behaviors and characteristics of these accounts. Active Directory administrators should be aware this attribute and how to interpret it. The value is a bitmask and features are enabled by turning on or off various bits along the mask. There are many articles on this topic (here is one), so I am simply giving you some examples to work through and a homework assignment at the end.

When viewing the UserAccountControl attribute in ADSI edit or LDP, the value is represented in Decimal or Hexidecimal. So, it is important to know how to convert the values. And since it is a bitmask, binary is needed as well. I am going to walk you through two short examples and give you a few to do on your own. I am not going to teach you how to convert the values, so use a calculator as needed.

Further down in this blog is a bitmask table with explanation of the values. I copied the table from protocol specification MS-ADTS. Review the table and you may find some familiar settings that you may have encountered. The table is needed for working the examples and homework to map the one or two letter values.

On with the examples and homework.

Example 1:

The default value for domain controllers: 532480

Convert 532480 to binary and hexidecimal:

Bin: 1000 0010 0000 0000 0000

Hex: 0x82000

Place the binary value on the top row to interpret the bit using the table below. For domain controllers the default value for domain controllers lines up TD and ST.

Note: The second row is a counter for the bit 0 – 31 (32 bits).

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

X

X

X

X

X

PS

NA

TA

PE

DR

DK

ND

TD

SR

X

DP

X

X

ST

WT

ID

X

N

X

ET

CC

NR

L

HR

X

D

X

The result is:

SERVER_TRUST_ACCOUNT

TRUSTED_FOR_DELEGATION

Example 2:

A common finding on Active Directory Rap as a Service is domain controllers that have Password Not Required set. This can be reproduced by creating a computer account before joining the computer to the domain and promoting the machine to become a domain controller. In addition to the Active Directory Rap as a Service, DCdiag will discover the issue with the following output:

<SNIP FROM DCDIAG>

Starting test: MachineAccount

Checking machine account for DC DC101 on DC DC101.

Warning: Attribute userAccountControl of DC101 is:

0x82020 = ( PASSWD_NOTREQD | SERVER_TRUST_ACCOUNT | TRUSTED_FOR_DELEGATION )

Typical setting for a DC is

0x82000 = ( SERVER_TRUST_ACCOUNT | TRUSTED_FOR_DELEGATION )

DCdiag is good at showing that three bits are set

PASSWD_NOTREQD

SERVER_TRUST_ACCOUNT

TRUSTED_FOR_DELEGATION

<END DCDIAG SNIP>

Using the table again we have the same two bits from the default settings on a domain controller, but also add an additional bit to set “PASSWD_NOTREQD”.

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

X

X

X

X

X

PS

NA

TA

PE

DR

DK

ND

TD

SR

X

DP

X

X

ST

WT

ID

X

N

X

ET

CC

NR

L

HR

X

D

X

Convert 1000 0010 0000 0010 0000 to decimal and hexadecimal

Dec: 532512

Hex: 0x82020

Note: to fix this issue, use ADSIedit to open the properties of the domain controller and edit the useraccountcontol attribute of the domain controller to set it to 532480.

Homework (answers below):

Use the tables below to determine what these values mean.

1) A typical user decimal value is 512 (dec)

2) A typical workstation or server value is 0x1000 (hex)

Extra Credit:

What value would you expect for an IIS server that has been trusted for delegation?

Table and bit value meanings:

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

X

X

X

X

X

PS

NA

TA

PE

DR

DK

ND

TD

SR

X

DP

X

X

ST

WT

ID

X

N

X

ET

CC

NR

L

HR

X

D

X

X

Unused. Must be zero and ignored.

D (ADS_UF_ACCOUNT_DISABLE, 0x00000002)

Specifies that the account is not enabled for authentication.

HR (ADS_UF_HOMEDIR_REQUIRED, 0x00000008)

Specifies that the homeDirectory attribute is required.

L (ADS_UF_LOCKOUT, 0x00000010)

Specifies that the account is temporarily locked out.

NR (ADS_UF_PASSWD_NOTREQD, 0x00000020)

Specifies that the password-length policy, as specified in [MS-SAMR] section 3.1.1.8.1, does not apply to this user.

CC (ADS_UF_PASSWD_CANT_CHANGE, 0x00000040)

Specifies that the user cannot change his or her password.

ET (ADS_UF_ENCRYPTED_TEXT_PASSWORD_ALLOWED, 0x00000080)

Specifies that the cleartext password is to be persisted.

N (ADS_UF_NORMAL_ACCOUNT, 0x00000200)

Specifies that the account is the default account type that represents a typical user.

ID (ADS_UF_INTERDOMAIN_TRUST_ACCOUNT, 0x00000800)

Specifies that the account is for a domain-to-domain trust.

WT (ADS_UF_WORKSTATION_TRUST_ACCOUNT, 0x00001000)

Specifies that the account is a computer account for a computer that is a member of this domain.

ST (ADS_UF_SERVER_TRUST_ACCOUNT, 0x00002000)

Specifies that the account is a computer account for a DC.

DP (ADS_UF_DONT_EXPIRE_PASSWD, 0x00010000)

Specifies that the password does not expire for the account.

SR (ADS_UF_SMARTCARD_REQUIRED, 0x00040000)

Specifies that a smart card is required to log in to the account.

TD (ADS_UF_TRUSTED_FOR_DELEGATION, 0x00080000)

Used by the Kerberos protocol. This bit indicates that the "OK as Delegate" ticket flag, as described in [RFC4120] section 2.8, MUST be set.

ND (ADS_UF_NOT_DELEGATED, 0x00100000)

Used by the Kerberos protocol. This bit indicates that the ticket-granting tickets (TGTs) of this account and the service tickets obtained by this account are not marked as forwardable or proxiable when the forwardable or proxiable ticket flags are requested. For more information, see [RFC4120].

DK (ADS_UF_USE_DES_KEY_ONLY, 0x00200000)

Used by the Kerberos protocol. This bit indicates that only des-cbc-md5 or des-cbc-crc keys, as defined in [RFC3961], are used in the Kerberos protocols for this account.

DR (ADS_UF_DONT_REQUIRE_PREAUTH, 0x00400000)

Used by the Kerberos protocol. This bit indicates that the account is not required to present valid preauthentication data, as described in [RFC4120] section 7.5.2.

PE (ADS_UF_PASSWORD_EXPIRED, 0x00800000)

Specifies that the password age on the user has exceeded the maximum password age policy.

TA (ADS_UF_TRUSTED_TO_AUTHENTICATE_FOR_DELEGATION, 0x01000000)

Used by the Kerberos protocol. When set, this bit indicates that the account (when running as a service) obtains an S4U2self service ticket (as specified in [MS-SFU]) with the forwardable flag set. If this bit is cleared, the forwardable flag is not set in the S4U2self service ticket.

NA (ADS_UF_NO_AUTH_DATA_REQUIRED, 0x02000000)

Used by the Kerberos protocol. This bit indicates that when the Key Distribution Center (KDC) is issuing a service ticket for this account, the Privilege Attribute Certificate (PAC) MUST NOT be included. For more information, see [RFC4120].

PS (ADS_UF_PARTIAL_SECRETS_ACCOUNT, 0x04000000)

Specifies that the account is a computer account for a read-only domain controller (RODC). If this bit is set, the ADS_UF_WORKSTATION_TRUST_ACCOUNT must also be set. This flag is only interpreted by a DC whose DC functional level is DS_BEHAVIOR_WIN2008 or greater.

Homework (Answers):

1) A typical user decimal value is 512 (dec)

This converts to 10 0000 0000 Binary

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

X

X

X

X

X

PS

NA

TA

PE

DR

DK

ND

TD

SR

X

DP

X

X

ST

WT

ID

X

N

X

ET

CC

NR

L

HR

X

D

X

This lines up with N for Normal_Account

2) A typical workstation or server value is 0x1000 (hex)

This converts to 1 0000 0000 0000 Binary

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

X

X

X

X

X

PS

NA

TA

PE

DR

DK

ND

TD

SR

X

DP

X

X

ST

WT

ID

X

N

X

ET

CC

NR

L

HR

X

D

X

This lines up to WT (Workstation_Trust_Account)

Extra Credit:

What value would you expect for an IIS server that has been trusted for delegation?

Typical server value is 4096 and if you add TD (Trusted for Delegation) which is hex 0x80000 or decimal 524,288 you would expect to find 528,384

Final word

Knowing the values above, you can write a short script to look for accounts with a particular setting such as Kerberos Pre-auth disabled, or an account configured to use only DES encryption for Kerberos. These are two more settings reviewed during an AD Risk Assessment but there are others as you can see on the table above.

Doug “keeping user account control under control” Gabbard